In this episode we trace the history of the hijab and religious garb. We start by examining the Qur’an on the subject, historicizing the verses and providing context. We then look at the broader tradition of veiling and headscarves in the near east in Late Antiquity. Tracing the tradition from Jewish, Christian, Byzantine, and Persian roots we look at how the headscarf and veil took shape within Islamic society and its intersection with class in the early Muslim empires. We discuss how the current manifestation of the hijab was shaped by cultural practices of the Turko-Persian world and conclude with a discussion on how the hijab and religious garb in general became major symbols in the debates about modernity. We discuss the rise of secular nationalists and their attempt to create national character against the religious garb and the backlash from the religious movements that followed. Finally we conclude by noting how the hijab has become an identity-forming act.