In our final episode of the season we talk about how Islam is shaped by the decline of the gunpowder empires and the coming of European colonialism. We talk about the rise of Wahhabism and its historical context, the emergence of pan-Islamism, Islamic modernism, and fundamentalism. We talk about the genealogy of these movements in figures like Jamal Ad Din Al Afghani, Khayr ad Din al Tunisi and how the historical experience of colonialism and globalization shaped their thinking. We discuss Hasan al Banna and the Muslim Brotherhood and Sayyid Qutb’s influence on the emergence of political Islam. We also talk about Abul A’la Maududi and his influence on the concept of the jihad. In this episode we chart the remergence of the language of the caliphate and the influence of European thought in political Islam. We explore the ideological foundation behind the Iranian Revolution with Ali Shariati. Finally we conclude with the intellectual divisions in contemporary Islam from Islamism and Wahhabism to political Islam, to reform and revival movements; setting the stage for next season.