This episode covers the schism betweeen Sunnism and Shi’ism, detailing how historical circumstances and experiences are overlaid with theological significance. Focusing on the experience of the Muslim community during the early fitnas we discuss how political movements about legitimacy and authority shape what later becomes theological stances. This episode details tribulations after the death of Caliph ‘Ali and the tragedy at the Battle of Karbala. We also talk about the revolt in Mecca by Ibn al Zubayr and rise of the Umayyad dynasty. We conclude with the nature of Umayyad society; its social hierarchy, the connection to the Byzantine world, and a brief history of the hijab.