In this episode we discuss the formation of Shia orthodoxy. Picking up from our earlier episode on early Shi’ism we explore how the experience of persecution under the Umayyads and Abbasid shaped Shia thought and doctrine. We discuss the Muhammad al Baqir and Jaffar as Sadiq and their contributions to the theological principles of Shi’ism. We explore the concept of the hidden meaning of the Qu’ran and the much misunderstood idea of taqiyaa. Finally we trace the genealogy of Sufism, discussing their interaction with Buddhism and how they developed not as a sect, but set of approaches within Sunnism.